On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only „suspended.“   USMCA countries must comply with IMF standards to prevent exchange rate manipulation. The agreement requires disclosure of market interventions. The IMF may be summoned as an arbitrator if the parties argue.
 On May 11, 2018, House Of Representatives critic Paul Ryan set May 17 as the deadline for congressional action. This deadline was not met and the agreement with Mexico was not reached until August 27, 2018.  At that time, Canada had not approved the agreement. Mexico`s outgoing President Enrique Pea Nieto, having left office on 1 December 2018 and requiring 60 days as a review period, the deadline for making the agreed text available was set at the end of September 2018, 30 September 2018. Negotiators worked around the clock and reached an agreement less than an hour before midnight on a draft text. The next day, October 1, 2018, the USMCA text was published as an agreed document. In addition, there is a provision that the agreement itself must be reviewed every six years by the three nations, with a 16-year forfeiture clause. The contract may be renewed for a period of 16 years during the six-year review period.  The introduction of the Sunset clause gives more control in the organization of the future of the USMCA in the hands of national governments. However, there is concern that this could lead to greater uncertainty.
Sectors such as automotive require significant investment in cross-border supply chains.  Given the dominant position of the U.S. consumer market, it is likely that this will put pressure on companies to establish more production in the United States, with a higher probability of higher production costs for these vehicles.  The agreed text of the agreement was signed by the heads of state and government of the three countries on 30 November 2018 as a secondary event at the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  The English, Spanish and French versions will also be binding and the agreement will take effect after ratification by the three states through the adoption of enabling laws.  – Benefit U.S. farmers, ranchers and agricultural businesses by modernizing and strengthening food and agricultural trade in North America. On December 9, 2019, Fox News reported that negotiators from the three countries reached an agreement on implementation, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three parties before the end of the year. Mexico has agreed to impose a minimum wage of $16 per hour for Mexican auto workers by a „neutral“ third party. Mexico, which imports all of its aluminum, also objected to the provisions relating to the U.S. steel and aluminum content of automotive components.
 On June 19, 2019, the Mexican Senate ratified the agreement (114 yes, 3 no, 3 abstentions).  Mexico`s ratification process will be completed when the President announces its ratification to the Federal Register.