Anxious to „significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,“ the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while striving to limit the increase in temperatures to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to work to ensure that global greenhouse gas emissions are offset as quickly as possible and become climate neutral by the second half of this century at the latest. To achieve these targets, 186 countries responsible for more than 90% of global emissions presented carbon reduction targets known as „Planned National Contributions“ (INDCs) ahead of the Paris conference. These targets set out each country`s commitments to reduce emissions (including conservation of carbon sinks) by 2025 or 2030, including overall CO2 emission reduction targets and individual commitments from some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. As climate change promotes temperature rise and extreme weather events, it endangers our air, water and food. spread of the disease; and endangers our home and safety. We are facing a growing public health crisis. A study published in 2018 reports a threshold where temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees above the pre-industrial level (ambiguous expression, continuity would be „4-5 °C“), thanks to self-concretizing feedbacks in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2 degree target set in the Paris Climate Agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out, „We find that, in its history, the Earth has never had a near-stable state about 2°C warmer than pre-industrial and we suggest that there is a considerable risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want,“ even if we stop emissions. This doesn`t just mean reducing emissions, but much more.  A new topic that has proven to be the focus of the Paris negotiations is the fact that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or too rapid to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to address such loss and damage and aims to find appropriate responses.  It is specified that loss and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as. B loss of land due to sea level rise for low islands.
 Warmer temperatures, both on land and at sea, change global weather patterns and change how and where it translates. These changing patterns aggravate dangerous and deadly droughts, heat waves, floods, wildfires and storms, including hurricanes. They also melt ice caps, glaciers and permafrost layers, which can lead to sea level rise and coastal erosion. Warmer temperatures also affect entire ecosystems and unbalance migration patterns and life cycles. For example, an early spring can make trees and plants bloom before bees and other pollinators have appeared. . . .